Questions usually come from speech writing, article writing and reports writing in WAEC, NECO & GCE [English Language] but most students don’t know how to answer them correctly.
That is the main reason why I created this article.
Major Things Students Should Know IN Delivering a Speech
Now, here are the main things you should about writing a speech.
1.Speeches begins with opening greetings: Gentlemen, Ladies, Ladies and Gentlemen, Your Highness, Distinguished guests, Mr. Chairman, Mrs. Chairlady, Fellow Members, etc.
2.The speaker then says either: I am very pleased/ feel honored/privileged to have been asked to address … or it gives me great pleasure to … or The Principal/Chairman/etc, has asked me to say a few words (on/about…) or I have been asked to …
3. He/She then names the subject of the speech. This especially in a speech of welcome or thanks, need not more than one sentence.
4. The main body of the speech then follows. During this the speaker can – though it is not necessary – repeat the words of the opening greeting once or twice: Ladies and Gentlemen, etc.
5. At the end the speaker usually repeats Ladies & Gentlemen, etc. and he/she may say: It gives/has given me great pleasure to/I am grateful for the opportunity you have given me to … /Thank you for listening so patiently/I hope I have managed to give you some idea of …
6. Not all speeches are speeches of welcome or thanks. A speaker in a debate has to put forward arguments and try and persuade the listeners that his point of view is the correct one.
On the other hand, he may be asked to give a fair and balanced talk on a subject, giving equal weight to the arguments on both sides.
In either of these cases, the main body of the speech will consist of a discussion of the topic. At the end the speaker will sum up and in the way exemplified in No. 5 above.
Things You Should When Writing Articles
1. Articles in newspapers and magazines can be of several kinds:
- The description of a place (e.g. of a beauty spot or a new factory) or an event (e.g. a traditional festival or the opening of a church/mosque);
- A short story (often with the aim of pointing a moral or making a point);
- A discussion of a topical issue, whether religious, political, social or economic.
2. You will have to read examples of these different kinds of writing and almost certainly have written compositions based on these examples. What is the difference between such compositions and an article?
In description or narrative there is little difference, except that the writer of a composition knows that the teacher has to read it.
The writer of an article for a newspaper or popular magazine, on the contrary, knows that the reader does not have to read it and, indeed, will only read it if the writer makes it so interesting that the reader wants to read it.
So, before writing an article, think how you can make the subject really interesting.
Look at articles in the papers and notice which ones you read right through with interest and which ones you find it hard to finish or do not manage to finish because they are dull.
Then ask yourself why one article interested you while another seemed dull. It might only be because you are interested in the subject matter of one and not interested in that of the other.
3. But there is usually another reason. One writer has succeeded in making his subject interesting; the other has not.
4. The difference between argumentative compositions and articles is greater. In a composition a pupil is expected to put both sides of a question fairly, even if he/she is supposed to prefer one. In an article there is no need t put forward any point of view other than one’s own.
Basic Things You Need To Know About Writing Reports
1. Here are a few notes on writing reports of events such as social club meetings, village or town meetings, prize-giving, etc.
- These reports are mainly narratives of what happened; therefore your statement should generally be in chronological order;
- A report of this kind should not be long or detailed; therefore you cannot refer to everything that happened; choose occurrences which are most important and most likely to interest the people who will read the report.
- Write in a clear and simple style, using sentences of only one or two clauses; use as, since, because (of), etc. to indicate reasons, in order to, so as to and so that to indicate purpose, and after, before, until, when and which to indicate time.
- Avoid any comment or opinion of your own.
- At the beginning state the event you are going to report, where it took place and when. Unless it is obvious, indicate the group or groups of people who were present.
- At the end, give details (place, date and time) of any future event which may be planned to follow, or as a result of the event you have reported.
2. With another kind of report you are already very familiar, namely, an account of a process. Note that here again a simple style and chronological order are necessary.
3. A report on how a scientific experiment was carried out is different from a report of an event because no detail can be omitted when you are describing an experiment. Also, in scientific English, use the passive voice more often than in other kinds of writing; for example, instead of writing
The experimenter heated the flask.
The flask was heated.
Note too that instructions for an experiment are very similar to a report on it except that the former requires the present and future forms of verbs while the latter requires past forms of verbs.
4. Ordinary citizens must also be able to make satisfactory report to the police of road accidents, robberies, etc. These reports must be very exact and very clear.
What you say in a report of this kind must state only what you know to be true; it must exclude what you suppose or guess may be true.
For example, in describing an accident, you can say what you did, said or thought; you can say what anyone else did if you saw his actions; you can say what anyone else said if you heard it said; but you cannot say what anyone else thought; only that person can report his own thoughts.
If you come home and find that your house has been entered by a thief, report only what you saw (the broken window, the mud on the floor, the chair lying on its side, etc.), and list the articles stolen from your house.
But do not include your theories about how the burglary was carried out or who did it: the police will form their own theories and are not interested in yours.
Divide your report into clearer sections
- Signs that the house had been entered.
- Signs that the burglar had moved about inside the house.
- List the things the thief damaged.
- List the things the thief took away.
In reporting a road accident, you must;
- Be exact about when and where it happened.
- Be exact about the positions of the vehicles and/or people concerned just before, at the moment of the accident and just after the accident.
- Give all your information in strict chronological order.
- Avoid guesses about why the accident happened or how it could have been avoided.
5. Finally, note that in a report it is not necessary to write a special introductory or concluding paragraph. But in formal reports like those referred to in No. 2, 3 and 4, it is usual and useful to number the paragraphs.
If you have any questions about this article or add ups to it, please feel free to leave a comment below.
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